The Piri Reis Map is a remarkably accurate map of Europe and Northern Africa that was named after the cartographer who assembled it. Reis drew the map using fragments of many other maps as reference. It was drawn sometime in the early part of the 16th century.
The Dead Sea Scrolls are the most important religious discovery of the 20th Century. The scrolls were written between 408 BC and 318 AD. There are 981 of them, which add a great deal of apocrypha to the Biblical canon.